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It should be noted, however, that some postmodernists vehemently reject the relativist label. Postmodernists deny that there are aspects of reality that are objective; that there are statements about reality that are objectively true or false; that it is possible to have knowledge of such statements objective knowledge ; that it is possible for human beings to know some things with certainty; and that there are objective, or absolute, moral values.

Reality, knowledge, and value are constructed by discourses; hence they can vary with them. This means that the discourse of modern science, when considered apart from the evidential standards internal to it, has no greater purchase on the truth than do alternative perspectives, including for example astrology and witchcraft. The broad relativism apparently so characteristic of postmodernism invites a certain line of thinking regarding the nature and function of discourses of different kinds.

If postmodernists are correct that reality, knowledge, and value are relative to discourse, then the established discourses of the Enlightenment are no more necessary or justified than alternative discourses. But this raises the question of how they came to be established in the first place. If it is never possible to evaluate a discourse according to whether it leads to objective Truth, how did the established discourses become part of the prevailing worldview of the modern era?

Why were these discourses adopted or developed, whereas others were not? Part of the postmodern answer is that the prevailing discourses in any society reflect the interests and values, broadly speaking, of dominant or elite groups.

Inspired by the historical research of the French philosopher Michel Foucault , some postmodernists defend the comparatively nuanced view that what counts as knowledge in a given era is always influenced, in complex and subtle ways, by considerations of power. There are others, however, who are willing to go even further than Marx.

The French philosopher and literary theorist Luce Irigaray , for example, has argued that the science of solid mechanics is better developed than the science of fluid mechanics because the male-dominated institution of physics associates solidity and fluidity with the male and female sex organs, respectively.

Because the established discourses of the Enlightenment are more or less arbitrary and unjustified, they can be changed; and because they more or less reflect the interests and values of the powerful, they should be changed.

Thus postmodernists regard their theoretical position as uniquely inclusive and democratic, because it allows them to recognize the unjust hegemony of Enlightenment discourses over the equally valid perspectives of nonelite groups. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

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Aug 17, See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Many postmodernists regarded the very idea of objectivity as a dubious invention of the modern—i.

Historical thought, turned on itself, shows that history has not always existed, nor is it found in every culture. Historians, of all people, are reluctant to pose as prophets, because they know best how various are….

Postmodernists attacked the attempt by Enlightenment philosophers and others to discover allegedly…. This concept maintains that there are no absolute truths, so no grand theories can provide universal explanations and guides to action. Truths are the beliefs on which people act, and there are multiple truths of which none can claim primacy, although the value of…. More About Postmodernism 10 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References continental philosophy In continental philosophy: Foucault ethical relativism In ethical relativism: Ethical relativism and postmodernism geography In geography: Influence of the social sciences historiography In historiography: The presentation of history philosophy of education In philosophy of education: Feminist, multiculturalist, and postmodern criticisms political philosophy In political philosophy: Foucault and postmodernism postmaterialism In postmaterialism skepticism In skepticism: Postmodernism study of international relations In international relations: Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. Introduction Postmodernism and modern philosophy Postmodernism and relativism. You have successfully emailed this. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. Une autre polémique concerne la représentation réaliste de la nudité.

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Postmodernism and modern philosophy